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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following anatomical structures.

  1. Penis (glans and shaft)
  2. Corpus cavernosum
  3. Corpus spongiosum
  4. Scrotum
  5. Testis (pl. = testes)
  6. Spermatic cord
  7. Seminiferous tubules
  8. Rete Testis
  9. Efferent Ductules of Testis
  10. Epididymis
  11. Ductus (vas) deferens
  12. Ejaculatory duct
  13. Seminal vesicle
  14. Prostate gland
  15. Bulbourethral gland
  16. Urethra: preprostatic, prostatic, membranous, penile
  17. External Anal Sphincter Muscle
  18. Pelvic Diaphragm
  19. Bulbospongiosus m.
  20. Ischlocavernosus m.



  1. Penis (glans and shaft) - male organ of copulation; the shaft is composed of three column-like erectile bodies; glans penis is the end of the penis. Directional terminology may be a little confusing in the penis because the dorsal side is the one that faces anteriorly, at least when the penis is flaccid, whereas the ventral side of the penis faces posteriorly. 
  2. Corpus cavernosum - paired erectile bodies that span the length of the shaft and fill with blood during erection (vasocongestion).
  3. Corpus spongiosum - single erectile body that spans the length of the shaft and fills with blood during erection (vasocongestion); surrounds the urethra. 
  4. Scrotum - skin-covered, highly pigmented, muscular sack that extends from the body behind the penis, houses the testes.
  5. Testis (pl. = testes) - the male gonad; paired oval organ in the male reproductive system; located in the scrotum; produces sperm and testosterone.
  6. Spermatic cord - cord-like structure formed by the vas deferens (ductus deferens) and surrounding tissue that begins in the abdomen and ends in the scrotum.
  7. Seminiferous tubules - tightly coiled tubes that form the bulk of each testis; composed of developing sperm cells and release formed sperm to the duct system of the testis.
  8. Rete Testis - located in the posterior side of the testes; receives sperm from the seminiferous tubules and passes it into the efferent ductules of the testis.
  9. Efferent Ductules of Testis - 15-20 little ductules in the posterior side of testis;  connect the rete testis with the initial section of the epididymis.
  10. Epididymis - a tightly coiled tube; attached to the postero-superior side of the testis; receives sperm from the efferent ductules and connects to the vas deferens.
  11. Ductus (vas) deferens - a thick, muscular tube that extends superiorly from the epididymis within the spermatic cord and continues posteriorly to the pelvic cavity; ends posterior to the bladder where it forms the ampulla (aka “flask”).
  12. Ejaculatory duct - short structure formed from the ampulla of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle; transports the seminal fluid into the prostate gland.
  13. Seminal vesicle - paired accessory glands located on the posterior side of the urinary bladder; contribute approximately 60% of the semen volume.
  14. Prostate gland - walnut sized accessory gland; located at the base of the bladder; surrounds the prostatic urethra and the ejaculatory ducts; secretes an alkaline, milky fluid to the passing seminal fluid.
  15. Bulbourethral gland - accessory gland; located adjacent to the urogenital diaphragm; releases a thick fluid that lubricates the end of the urethra and the vagina, and helps to clean urine residue.
  16. Urethra (preprostatic, prostatic, membranous, penile) - begins at the inferior part of the bladder and has the shape of letter S; passes through a)the wall of the urinary bladder (preprostatic), b)prostate (prostatic), c)the urogenital diaphragm (membranous) and d)penis (penile); excretes urine and semen to the outside of the body. 
  17. External Anal Sphincter Muscle - voluntary (striated) muscle encircling the outside wall of the anal canal and anal opening.
  18. Pelvic diaphragm (aka pelvic floor) - muscles that make up the inferior lining of the pelvic cavity; supports the bladder and bowel and affects sexual function.
  19. Bulbospongiosus m. - muscle of the pelvic diaphragm; paired with the ischiocavernosus muscle  it surrounds the bulb (the enlarged inner end of the structure that surrounds the urethra) of the penis and can be contracted to expel the last drops of urine or semen.
  20. Ischiocavernosus m. - a bilateral, superficial perineal muscle located in the urogenital triangle;  helps to maintain penile erections during sexual arousal and intercourse.


Module 15 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity