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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following bones and their major bone markings. 

Facial bones of the skull 

  1. Zygomatic Bone
  2. Nasal Bone
  3. Lacrimal Bone
  4. Maxilla Bone
  5. Vomer Bone
  6. Palatine Bone
  7. Mandible Bone
  8. Mental Foramen
  9. Coronoid Process
  10. Mandibular Condyle


Thoracic cage

  1. Head of rib
  2. Tubercle of rib
  3. Costal Groove
  4. True Ribs
  5. False Ribs
  6. Floating Ribs
  7. Manubrium
  8. Corpus (body)
  9. Xiphoid Process
  10. Clavicular Notch
  11. Jugular Notch



Facial bones of the skull 

  1. Zygomatic Bone (aka cheekbone) - paired bone; forms much of the lateral wall of the orbit and the lateral-inferior margins of the anterior orbital opening 
  2. Nasal Bone - paired bone; small bones that articulate (join) with each other anteriorly to form the bony base (bridge) of the nose; often damaged when the nose is broken
  3. Lacrimal Bone - paired bone; small, rectangular bone that forms the medial wall of the orbit. 
  4. Maxilla Bone - paired bone; forms the upper jaw, much of the hard palate, the medial floor of the orbit, and the lateral base of the nose
  5. Vomer Bone - single bone; forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
  6. Palatine Bone - paired bone; irregularly shaped bones that contribute small areas to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and the medial wall of each orbit
  7. Mandible Bone - single bone; forms the lower jaw and is the only moveable facial bone of the skull; at the time of birth consists of paired right and left bones that fuse together 
  8. Mental Foramen - on the mandible; a paired opening located on the anterior surface of the mandible; passage for a sensory nerve that supplies the chin
  9. Coronoid Process - on the mandible;  the anterior (flattenned) projection of the mandibular ramus
  10. Mandibular Condyle - on the mandible; the posterior projection of the mandibular ramus; articulates (joins) with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone forming the temporomandibular joint that allows for opening and closing of the mouth


Thoracic cage 

  1. Head of rib - the posterior end of a typical rib that articulates primarily with the costal facet on the body of the same numbered thoracic vertebra and to a lesser degree, with the costal facet located on the body of the next higher vertebra.
  2. Tubercle of rib - an eminence on the posterior surface at the junction of the neck and body of the rib, and nearer the lower than the upper border; articulates with the facet located on the transverse process of the same numbered vertebra.
  3. Costal Groove - on the rib; a shallow groove found along the inferior margin of each rib; passageway for intercostal vessels and nerve
  4. True Ribs - ribs 1–7; directly articulate with the sternum with their costal cartilages
  5. False Ribs - ribs 8-12; do not articulate directly with the sternum; the 8th, 9th, and 10th are connected to the 7th rib by cartilage.
  6. Floating Ribs - the last two false ribs (11–12); do not articulate with the sternum at all
  7. Manubrium - wider, superior portion of the sternum
  8. Corpus (body) - middle, main portion of the sternum
  9. Xiphoid Process - the inferior tip of the sternum
  10. Clavicular Notch - on the manubrium; a shallow depression located on each side at the superior-lateral margins; site of the sternoclavicular joint
  11. Jugular Notch - on the manubrium; a shallow U-shaped border located on the superior margin


Module 4 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity