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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following structures

Oral cavity 


  1. Esophageal hiatus



  1. Cardiac region (or cardial part of stomach)
  2. Fundus
  3. Body of stomach
  4. Pyloric region (or pylorus or pyloric antrum)
  5. Pyloric sphincter
  6. Lesser curvature
  7. Greater curvature
  8. Gastric rugae (or rugae)


Small intestine 

  1. Duodenum
  2. Jejunum
  3. Ileum
  4. Ileocecal valve


Large intestine 

  1. Cecum
  2. Vermiform appendix
  3. Ascending colon
  4. Transverse colon
  5. Descending colon
  6. Sigmoid colon
  7. Rectum
  8. Anal canal
  9. Anus
  10. Teniae coli 
  11. Haustra 



Oral cavity - a cavity between the lips anteriorly, cheeks laterally, palate superiorly and the pharynx posteriorly. Has accessory organs. 


  1. Esophageal hiatus - an opening in the diaphragm for the esophagus as it passes from the thoracic to abdominal cavity. 

Pharynx - a short tube of skeletal muscle connecting the nasal cavity to the esophagus

Stomach - a muscular sac located in the abdominal cavity, inferior to the diaphragm and the esophagus and anterior to the pancreas; its superior portion communicates with the esophagus and its inferior portion communicates with the duodenum.

  1. Cardiac region (or cardial part of stomach) - the point where the esophagus connects to the stomach and through which food passes into the stomach
  2. Fundus - a dome shaped region of the stomach located inferior to the diaphragm, above and to the left of the cardia
  3. Body of stomach - located below the fundus; the main portion of the stomach
  4. Pyloric region (or pylorus) - a funnel shaped region that connects the stomach to the duodenum
  5. Pyloric sphincter - a smooth muscle sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum; controls the movement of chyme into the duodenum 
  6. Lesser curvature - the concave medial border of the stomach 
  7. Greater curvature - the convex lateral border of the stomach
  8. Gastric rugae (or rugae) - large folds of mucosa and submucosa in the stomach; seen in empty stomach; allows the stomach to stretch when filling with food

Small intestine - a tube-like structure where most absorption happens

  1. Duodenum - first and shortest part of the small intestine; begins at the pyloric sphincter, bends posteriorly behind the peritoneum to become retroperitoneal, and then makes a C-shaped curve around the head of the pancreas
  2. Jejunum - second part of the small intestine; runs from the duodenum to the ileum; tethered to the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery. 
  3. Ileum - last and longest part of the small intestine; joins the cecum of the large intestine at the ileocecal sphincter valve (or sphincter); tethered to the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery. 
  4. Ileocecal valve  - a sphincter muscle situated at the junction of the ileum and the cecum; controls movement of chyme from the small intestine to the large intestine 

Large intestine - located in the abdominal cavity;  frames the small intestine on three sides and is subdivided into four main regions: the cecum, the colon, the rectum, and the anus.

  1. Cecum - first part of the large intestine; sac-like structure inferior to the ileocecal valve; place of attachment for the appendix, located in the right lower quadrant
  2. Vermiform appendix - a narrow, worm-shaped structure that protrudes from the posteromedial aspect of the cecum, 2 cm (or less) below the insertion of the ileum into the cecum; contains lymphoid tissue
  3. Ascending colon - first part of the colon; extends upward from the cecum to the right colic flexure and connects to the transverse colon; located on the right side of the abdomen 
  4. Transverse colon - second part of the colon, located horizontally between the ascending and descending colon
  5. Descending colon - third part of the colon; descends from the left colic flexure and connects transverse colon to the sigmoid colon; located on the left side of the abdomen
  6. Sigmoid colon - last part of the colon; S-shaped;  enters the pelvis and connects the descending colon to the rectum; located in the left lower quadrant
  7. Rectum - part of the large intestine that stores the stool; connects the sigmoid colon to the anus 
  8. Anal canal - last part of the large intestine; located in the perineum, completely outside of the abdominopelvic cavity
  9. Anus - opening of the anal canal to the exterior of the body;  allows waste to leave the body
  10. Teniae coli - three bands of longitudinal muscle layer on the surface of the colon
  11. Haustra (haustrum for singular) - segmental pouches along the length of the colon; responsible for the wrinkled appearance of the colon 


Module 12 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity