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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following bones and their major bone markings. 


  1. Spinous Process
  2. Transverse Process
  3. Superior Articular Process
  4. Inferior Articular Process
  5. Lamina
  6. Pedicle
  7. Centrum (body)
  8. Vertebral Foramen
  9. Atlas 
  10. Axis
  11. Transverse Foramen
  12. Odontoid Process (Dens)
  13. Inferior Notch
  14. Costal Demifacet
  15. Facet for tubercle of rib



  1. Ala
  2. Sacral promontory
  3. Median Sacral Crest
  4. Sacral Canal
  5. Anterior Sacral Foramina
  6. Posterior Sacral Foramina




  1. Spinous Process (vertebral spine) - a single posterior projection at the midline. The vertebral spines can easily be felt as a series of bumps just under the skin down the middle of the back.
  2. Transverse Process - a paired lateral projection; arises from the junction point between the pedicle and the lamina
  3. Superior Articular Process - a paired upward projection; the superior articular processes of one vertebra join with the corresponding inferior articular processes from the next superior vertebra. 
  4. Inferior Articular Process - a paired downward projection
  5. Lamina - the posterior part of the vertebral arch; found between the transverse and spinous process.
  6. Pedicle - the lateral part of the vertebral arch; anchored to the posterior side of the vertebral body 
  7. Centrum (body) - the main, weight-supporting part of a vertebra; the anterior part of the vertebra 
  8. Vertebral Foramen - a large opening between the vertebral arch and the body; houses the spinal cord
  9. Atlas -  the first cervical (C1) vertebra: does not have a body or spinous process- shaped like a ring; forms the atlanto-occipital joint
  10. Axis - the second cervical (C2) vertebra; forms the moveable atlanto-axial joint allowing for head rotation
  11. Transverse Foramen - an opening on the transverse process of cervical vertebrae; houses an artery that supplies the brain 
  12. Odontoid Process (aka Dens) - a bony projection that extends upward from the vertebral body of C2. The dens articulates with the atlas, where it is held in place by the transverse ligament
  13. Inferior Notch - a concavity on the inferior aspect of the pedicle. When the vertebrae are articulated, contributes to the formation of the intervertebral foramina.
  14. Costal Demifacet (aka half a facet) - an articular surface on the body of the vertebra; place of articulation for part of the head of the rib or part of the costal cartilage 
  15. Facet for tubercle of rib - an articular surface on the transverse process; place for articulation with the tubercle of the rib



  1. Ala - a large triangular articular surface on the sides of the sacral base; continuous with iliac fossa
  2. Sacral promontory -  the anterior margin of the body of the first sacral vertebra, forming the prominent sacrovertebral angle when articulated with the last lumbar vertebra
  3. Median Sacral Crest - a bumpy ridge on the posterior midline of the sacrum; formed by fused spinous processes
  4. Sacral Canal - bony tunnel; passes through the sacrum and terminates at the sacral hiatus near the inferior tip of the sacrum
  5. Anterior Sacral Foramina - openings on the anterior concave surface of the sacrum; place of exit for the spinal nerves 
  6. Posterior Sacral Foramina - openings on the posterior convex surface of the sacrum; place of exit for the spinal nerves


Module 5 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity