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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following structures


  1. Renal capsule (or fibrous capsule of kidney)
  2. Cortex
  3. Medulla
  4. Renal pyramid (or pyramid)
  5. Renal columns
  6. Major calyx
  7. Minor calyx
  8. Renal papilla
  9. Renal pelvis
  10. Nephron
  11. Ureter
  12. Renal artery
  13. Renal vein
  14. Arcuate artery
  15. Interlobar artery
  16. Arcuate vein
  17. Interlobar vein


Urinary bladder 

  1. Urinary bladder
  2. Trigone
  3. Urethra
  4. External urethral orifice
  5. Internal urethral orifice



  1. Bowman’s capsule
  2. Glomerulus
  3. Renal corpuscle
  4. Proximal Tubule
  5. Distal Tubule
  6. Loop of Henle
  7. Collecting duct



Kidney model

  1. Renal capsule (aka fibrous capsule of kidney) - directly covers the kidneys and is composed of dense, irregular connective tissue that helps to hold the kidneys' shape and protect them; covered by the renal fat pad
  2. Cortex - outer region of the kidney; between the renal capsule and renal medulla; houses the nephrons 
  3. Medulla - inner region of the kidney; divided into renal pyramids; important in concentrating urine
  4. Renal pyramid (or pyramid) - triangular shaped area in the medulla; base is oriented to the cortex; tip is oriented to the pelvis; looks tubular due to the presence of nephron tubules
  5. Renal columns - cortical projections in the medulla; separate the renal pyramids;  house blood vessels (interlobar) 
  6. Minor calyx - collects urine from the renal papilla; flows into a major calyx; part of the collecting system of the kidney
  7. Major calyx - collects urine from several minor calyces; flows into the renal pelvis; part of the collecting system of the kidney
  8. Renal papilla - at the tip of the pyramid; where the urine is emptied into the minor calyx
  9. Renal pelvis - funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney; formed from the major and minor calyces; funnels urine into the ureter
  10. Nephron - the microscopic functional and structural unit of the kidney; filters blood and forms urine
  11. Ureter - a muscular tube; emerges from the renal pelvis of each kidney; transports urine from the kidney to the bladder
  12. Renal artery - paired; enters the hilum; brings oxygenated blood from the descending aorta
  13. Renal vein - paired; emerges from the hilum; returns deoxygenated blood to the inferior vena cava
  14. Arcuate artery - vessel of renal circulation, located at the border of the renal cortex and renal medulla; emerges from the interlobar artery 
  15. Interlobar artery - vessel of renal circulation; emerges from the renal artery; located in the renal columns;  branches into the arcuate arteries 
  16. Arcuate vein - vessel of renal circulation; located at the border of the renal cortex and renal medulla; carries deoxygenated blood and empties into the interlobar vein
  17. Interlobar vein - vessel of renal circulation; empties blood from the kidney into the renal vein 

Urinary bladder on the reproductive models

  1. Urinary bladder - muscular sac in the pelvis; collects urine from both ureters and empties it into the urethra 
  2. Trigone - triangular-shaped area at the base of the bladder; formed by two ureteral openings superior and one urethral opening inferior
  3. Urethra - transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body for disposal; shows significant anatomic difference between males and females
  4. External urethral orifice - the external opening (or meatus) of the urethra; where urine exits in both males and females; in males, it is also where the semen is ejected during ejaculation.
  5. Internal urethral orifice - the opening of the bladder into the urethra 

Nephron (Picture)

  1. Bowman’s capsule - surrounds the glomerulus and captures and directs the fluid filtered from the glomerulus into the proximal tubule; together with the glomerulus forms the renal corpuscle
  2. Glomerulus - a tuft of high-pressure capillaries; filter blood; together with the Bowman’s capsule forms the renal corpuscle
  3. Renal corpuscle - made up of the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus
  4. Proximal Tubule - part of the nephron; found in the cortex of the kidney; connects to Bowman’s capsule and the nephron loop; most active part of the nephron; involved in secretion and reabsorption
  5. Distal Tubule - part of the nephron; found in the cortex of the kidney; connects the nephron loop to the connecting duct; involved in secretion and reabsorption
  6. Loop of Henle (aka nephron loop) - part of the nephron; a U-shaped tube that consists of a descending limb and ascending limb; found mostly in medulla; important for concentration of urine
  7. Collecting duct - transports urine made by nephrons to the calyces of the kidney for excretion


Module 7 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity