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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following cranial bones and their major bone markings.  

  1. Frontal Bone
  2. Parietal Bone
  3. Temporal Bone
  4. Carotid Canal
  5. Stylomastoid Foramen
  6. Mastoid Process
  7. Mandibular Fossa
  8. Zygomatic process
  9. Styloid Process
  10. Jugular Foramen
  11. Occipital Bone
  12. Foramen Magnum
  13. Occipital Condyles
  14. Hypoglossal Canal
  15. Nuchal Lines
  16. Sphenoid Bone
  17. Foramen Ovale
  18. Optic Foramen
  19. Foramen Rotundum
  20. Foramen Lacerum
  21. Greater Wing
  22. Lesser Wing
  23. Sella Turcica
  24. Pterygoid Plate
  25. Ethmoid Bone
  26. Crista Galli
  27. Cribriform Plate



Skull model

  1. Frontal Bone - single bone; forms the forehead
  2. Parietal Bone - paired bone; forms most of the upper lateral side of the skull; the right and left parietal bones unite in the middle with the sagittal suture
  3. Temporal Bone - paired bone; forms the lower lateral side of the skull; so named because these lateral area of the head are known as the temples
  4. Carotid Canal - in the temporal bone; a zig-zag shaped tunnel that provides passage for the internal carotid artery (supplies the brain) through the base of the skull and opens into the middle cranial fossa 
  5. Stylomastoid Foramen - in teh temporal bone; small opening located between the styloid process and mastoid process; passage for the facial nerve (CNVII)
  6. Mastoid Process - on temporal bone; a projection that can be easily felt on the lateral side of the head, just behind the earlobe
  7. Mandibular Fossa - on the temporal bone; deep, oval-shaped depression on the external base of the skull, anterior to the external acoustic meatus; part of the temporomandibular joint.
  8. Zygomatic process - on the temporal bone;  anterior projection that forms the posterior portion of the zygomatic arch
  9. Styloid Process - on the temporal bone; a needle-like downward bony projection on the external base of the skull; posterior to the mandibular fossa 
  10. Jugular Foramen - irregularly shaped opening lateral to the occipital condyles; passage for the glossopharyngeal-CNIX, vagus CNX, and accessory nerves CN XI and internal jugular veins
  11. Occipital Bone - single bone; forms the posterior skull
  12. Foramen Magnum - on the occipital bone; oval shaped opening for passage of the spinal cord,  largest foramen of the skull
  13. Occipital Condyles - on the occipital bone; projections/condyles lateral to the anterior part of the foramen magnum; form the atlanto-occipital joints 
  14. Hypoglossal Canal - on the occipital bone; opening at the anterior-lateral margin of the foramen magnum; emerging on the inferior aspect of the skull at the base of the occipital condyle; hidden medially and superiorly to each occipital condyle; passage for hypoglossal nerve (CNXII)
  15. Nuchal Lines - on the occipital bone; four curved lines on the external surface; attachment for muscles and ligaments
  16. Sphenoid Bone - single bone; irregular “butterfly” shape; forms much of the base of the skull and extends laterally to contribute to the lateral sides of the skull. 
  17. Foramen Ovale - in the sphenoid bone; an opening posterolateral to the foramen rotundum.
  18. Optic Foramen -  in the sphenoid bone;  the opening to the optic canal; passage for the optic nerve (CNII)
  19. Foramen Rotundum - in the sphenoid bone;  a rounded opening (rotundum = “round”) located in the middle cranial fossa, inferomedial to the superior orbital fissure at the base of greater wing of the sphenoid bone; passage for maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve (CNV)
  20. Foramen Lacerum aka “ragged” or “torn”- an irregular opening located in the base of the skull in the middle cranial fossa, anteromedial to the carotid canal; it is a gap between bones (sphenoid, temporal and occipital), rather than a true foramen within a bone.
  21. Greater Wing - part of sphenoid bone; a bony process extending from the side of the sphenoid body and curving superior, laterally, and posterior
  22. Lesser Wing - part of the sphenoid bone; smaller than greater wing; a sharp, pointed triangular plate arising laterally from the upper anterior portion of the sphenoid body. 
  23. Sella Turcica - on the sphenoid bone; saddle-shaped depression on the body of sphenoid - named for its resemblance to the horse saddles used by the Ottoman Turks, with a high back and a tall front, in the middle cranial fossa; the pituitary gland sits within the sella. 
  24. Pterygoid Plate - part of the sphenoid bone;  paired posteroinferior projections; seen on the inferior aspect of the skull 
  25. Ethmoid Bone -  single bone; located in the midline of the anterior cranium; forms the medial wall of the orbits, the nasal septum, and the roof of the nasal cavity. 
  26. Crista Galli - part of ethmoid bone; thick, midline, smooth triangular process arising from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, projecting into the anterior cranial fossa; rises above the cribriform plate 
  27. Cribriform Plate - part of ethmoid bone; forms the roof of the nasal cavity; a small, flattened area with numerous small openings called olfactory foramina; passage for olfactory nerve (CNI)


Module 3 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity