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Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory OER

Materials to accompany KINS 2511 and KINS 2512 Human Anatomy and Physiology labs.


Identify the following bones and their major bone markings. 

Pectoral Girdle

  1. Clavicle
  2. Scapula
  3. Acromion Process
  4. Coracoid Process
  5. Suprascapular Notch
  6. Superior Angle
  7. Inferior Angle
  8. Glenoid Cavity
  9. Spine of Scapula
  10. Medial Border
  11. Lateral Border
  12. Superior Border
  13. Subscapular Fossa
  14. Supraspinous Fossa
  15. Infraspinous Fossa


Pelvic Girdle

  1. Os Coxa
  2. Ischium 
  3. Ilium
  4. Pubis
  5. Acetabulum
  6. Iliac Crest
  7. Pubic Crest
  8. Iliac Fossa
  9. Obturator Foramen
  10. Greater Sciatic Notch
  11. Ischial Tuberosity
  12. Auricular Surface
  13. Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
  14. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine
  15. Posterior Superior Iliac Spine
  16. Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine



Pectoral Girdle 

  1. Clavicle - the only long bone that lies in a horizontal position in the body; lateral end articulates with the acromion process of scapula; medial end articulates with the sternum 
  2. Scapula aka shoulder blade - a large triangular-shaped flat bone located on the posterolateral side of the thoracic cage; part of the pectoral girdle; plays an important role in anchoring the upper limb to the body
  3. Acromion Process - bony process; a continuum of the spine of the scapula; located on the anterolateral portion of the shoulder girdle; articulates with the lateral end of the clavicle. 
  4. Coracoid Process - a small hook-like projection on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula; between the suprascapular notch and glenoid cavity. At the shoulder, the coracoid process is located inferior to the lateral end of the clavicle. 
  5. Suprascapular Notch - a notch in the superior border of the scapula, just lateral to the base of the coracoid process.
  6. Superior Angle - formed at the point where the medial and superior borders meet  
  7. Inferior Angle - formed at the point where the medial and lateral borders meet; most inferior portion of the scapula 
  8. Lateral angle - the point where the superior and lateral borders meet, has the glenoid fossa
  9. Glenoid Cavity (fossa) - a shallow depression that articulates with the head of the humerus
  10. Spine of Scapula - on the posterior surface of scapula; a long and prominent ridge that runs obliquely across the upper portion of the scapula. 
  11. Medial Border - the medial margin of the scapula, runs parallel to the vertebral column
  12. Lateral Border - the lateral margin of the scapula, thickest and strongest. 
  13. Superior Border - the superior margin of the scapula, shortest border 
  14. Subscapular Fossa - on the anterior (deep) surface of the scapula
  15. Supraspinous Fossa - on the posterior surface of the scapula, superior to the scapular spine; smaller.
  16. Infraspinous Fossa - on the posterior surface of scapula, inferior to the scapular spine; larger 

Pelvic Girdle 

  1. Os Coxa -  a paired bone; articulates with the sacrum to form the pelvis; initially formed of three separate bones - ischium, ilium and pubis
  2. Ischium -  posteroinferior region; supports the body when sitting. 
  3. Ilium - fan-like, superior region; forms the largest part of os coxa; articulates with sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
  4. Pubis - anterior region; articulates with the pubis of the opposite hip bone to form the joint called pubic symphysis.
  5. Acetabulum - a deep cavity on the lateral side of os coxa; articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint. 
  6. Iliac Crest - the curved, superior margin of the ilium; can be felt when placing hands on the waist
  7. Pubic Crest - a raised edge; extends from the pubic tubercle to the medial end of the pubis
  8. Iliac Fossa - a shallow depression located on the anteromedial (internal) surface of the superior part of ilium
  9. Obturator Foramen - a large opening created by the ischium and pubis; passage for blood vessels and nerves. 
  10. Greater Sciatic Notch - the large, superior indentation on the pelvis between the posterior inferior iliac spine (superior), and the ischial spine (inferior). 
  11. Ischial Tuberosity - a large, roughened area of the inferior ischium; carries the weight of the body when sitting.
  12. Auricular Surface - a rough surface; called from its resemblance in shape to the ear; articulates with a similar surface on the side of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint
  13. Anterior Superior Iliac Spine - rounded, anterior termination of the iliac crest; serves as attachment point for muscles
  14. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine - a rounded protuberance inferior to the anterior superior iliac spine; attachment point for muscles
  15. Posterior Superior Iliac Spine - a superior projection on the posterior surface of the ilium; posterior termination of the iliac crest 
  16. Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine -a projection inferior to the superior iliac spine;  located at the inferior end of the auricular surface of the ilium


Module 6 McGraw Hill Connect APR Cadaver Activity