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Citing Sources: Chicago/Turabian

What is Chicago style?

Chicago Manual of Style is used in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences. Turabian is a simplified version of of the Chicago Style for student papers and theses. 

There are two style options:  

  • Notes-Bibliography (NB) uses footnotes, typically followed by a bibliography. Used often in the humanities, history, and business.
  • Author-Date (AD) uses In-text parenthetical citations of author(s) last name, publication year, and cited pages, followed by a reference page. Used often in the social sciences.

Find Style Guides in the Library or Online

Click on the book cover for more information.

Formatting Your Paper

Ask your instructor if they prefer Notes-Bibliography (NB) or Author-Date (AD).

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier. Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).
  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.

Turabian Recommends......

Class papers will either include a Title Page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
  • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
  • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
  • Double-space each line of the title page

How do I cite my sources in the text of my paper? (In-text citation exampless)

Notes-Bibliography (NB)
In notes-style citations, you signal that you have used a source by placing a superscript number at the end of your sentence. You then cite the source in a correspondingly numbered note:

Naomi Wolf argues that women's magazines have instilled a message that women have to look a certain way to experience happiness.1


1. Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth (New York: Doubleday, 1991), 61.

Author-Date (AD)
Author/date includes entering the author and date at the end of the cited text. (No footnote)

"A girl learns that stories happen to 'beautiful' women, whether they are interesting or not" (Wolf 1991, 61).

How do I cite my sources at the end of my paper? (NB)

In Notes-Style (NB) you list your sources at the end of the page in a Bibliography. Each bibliography entry includes the same information contained in a full note, but in a slightly different form. 

Book with 1 Author
Mukherjee, Ankhi. What Is a Classic? Postcolonial Rewriting and Invention of the Canon. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 

Book with 2 Authors
Kinder, Donald R., and Allison Dale-Riddle. The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.

Book with No Author
The Book of Common Prayer. New York: Seabury Press, 1979.

Editor or Translator in Place of Author
Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000. 

Parts of Edited Collections
Binkley, Cameron. "Saving Redwoods: Clubwomen and Conservation, 1900-1925." In California Women and Politics: From the Gold Rush to the Great Depression, edited by Robert W. Cherny, 151-74. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011.

Journal Article
Taylor, Quentin. "The Mask of Publius: Alexander Hamilton and the Politics of Expediency." American Political Thought 5, no.1 (Winter 2016):55-79.

Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Last modified March 25, 2016.

How do I cite my sources at the end of my paper? (AD)

In Author-Date (AD) you list your sources at the end of the page in a References List. Each reference list entry includes complete bibliographical information for a source.

Book with 1 Author
Wolf, Naomi. 1991. The Beauty Myth. New York: Doubleday.

Book with 2 Authors
Beecher, Willard, and Marguerite Beecher. 1966. Beyond Success and Failure. Marina Del Ray, CA: Julian Press.

Book, No Author
The Book of Common Prayer. 1979. New York: Seabury Press.

Article in a Book/Encyclopedia
Hubbard, Kim, Anne-Marie O'Neill, and Christina Cheakalos. 2002. "Out of control." In Abnormal psychology: Essential cases and readings, ed. Thomas Bradbury and Cindy Yee-Brandbury, 266-269. New York: W.W.  Norton & Company.

Journal Article with 3 authors
Green, Cheryl, Walter Knysz, III, and Ming T. Tsuang. 2000. "A Homeless Person With Bipolar Disorder and a History of Serious Self-Mutilation." American Journal of Psychiatry 157, no. 1: 1392-1397.

Article Accessed From Electronic Database (with more than 3 authors)
Coulton,  Antoinnette, Amy Elisa Keith, Suzanne Zuckerman, Rebecca Daly, and Julie Jordan. 2009. "Eleni's Creepy Cookies."  People Magazine 72, no. 17: 100,  in Academic Search Complete (accessed November 10, 2009). 

The Chronicle of Higher Education. "Are Too Many Students Going to College?" The Chronicle of Higher Education. (accessed November 10, 2009).

Cite/Caption an Image