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Citing Sources

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The ASA Style Guide is designed for use by scholars preparing manuscripts for publication in American Sociological Association journals.

It is the preferred style for students of Sociology. 

Format your ASA Paper

 Use 1.25" Margins

​ 12pt font, double-spaced

 Create a separate title page including your paper title and name. Include word count of document on title page.

 Below title page, create separate page for abstract (if required).

 Have each page numbered, starting with title page.

 Main headings are in CAPS, center-aligned; sub-headings use sentence-style capitalization and align left.

Formatting your Reference List

 List references in alphabetical order by first authors’ last names.

 Include first names and last names for all authors. Use initials only if they appear in the original publication. Do not use et al. for multiple authors unless authored by a Committee.

 References should be double spaced with a hanging indent.

 All references cited in the text must be listed in the References section, and vice versa.

Reference Lists: How do I cite...?

[Note: In your References list, use a hanging indent (not shown here)]

Books
Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.) and Author2 (First Name M.I. Last Name). Year of publication. Name of Publication. Publisher’s city and state: Publisher’s name. 

  • Jaynes, Gerald D. and Robin M. Williams, Jr. 1989. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National  Academy Press.
  • Lambert, Stephen E. 2009. Great Jobs for Sociology Majors. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Palmisano, Joseph M. 2001. World of Sociology. Detroit, MI: Gale Group. 

Chapters in Edited Volumes
Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.). Year of publication. "Title of chapter." Pp. page numbers in Name of Publication, edited by, (including         surname, last name not inverted). Publisher's city and state: Publisher's name. 

  • Clausen, John. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society. Vol. 3, A Sociology of Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Journal Articles
Author1 Last Name, First Name M.I.) and Author2 (First Name M.I. Last Name). Year of publication. “Name of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Issue Number): Page Numbers of article.

  • Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Marital Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34 (3):237-51.
  • Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Resklin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.” American Sociological Review 65(2):256-78.

eResources
Articles and books obtained through the internet follow the same pattern as those previously mentioned, with the exception that the page numbers are omitted and the URL and date of access are included.

  • Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.) and Author2 (First Name M.I. Last Name). Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal Volume Number (Issue Number). Retrieved Month DD, YYYY (URL).
  • Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.). Year of publication. Name of Publication. Publisher’s city and state: Publisher’s name. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY (URL).

Consult one of the resources in the "Quick Links" area for formatting other commonly used resources. 

In-Text Citations

An in-text or parenthetical citation refers to the practice of giving credit to an author by citing their words and ideas in your paper. Citations in-text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. 

With author in sentence
Naomi Wolf (1991) argues that women's magazines have instilled a message that women have to look a certain way to experience happiness and excitement.

Without author in sentence
It has been argued that women's magazines have instilled a message that women have to look a certain way to experience happiness and excitement (Wolf 1991).

With author in sentence, using direct quote
Naomi Wolf (1991:71) argues that “a girl learns that stories happen to 'beautiful' women, whether they are interesting or not.“

REMEMBER to reference your internal citation at the end of your paper in the References section.