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Citing Sources

official logo of the american sociological association

Currently, in its 5th edition (2014) The ASA Style Guide is designed for use by scholars preparing manuscripts for publication in American Sociological Association journals. 

A printed copy is on Reserve at the 2nd Floor checkout desk in Henderson Library.

Format your ASA Paper

 Use 1.25" Margins (or as specified)

12pt Arial font, double-spaced

 Create a separate title page including your paper title and name, institution, and . Include word count of document on title page.

 Below title page, create separate page for abstract (if required).

 Have each page numbered, starting with title page.

 Main headings are in CAPS, center-aligned; sub-headings use sentence-style capitalization and align left.

Formatting your Reference List

 List references in alphabetical order by first authors’ last names.

 Include first names and last names for all authors. Use initials only if they appear in the original publication. Do not use et al. for multiple authors unless authored by a Committee.

 Use title case for all titles

 References should be double spaced with a hanging indent.

 All references cited in the text must be listed in the References section, and vice versa.

Quick Links for ASA Help

Reference Lists: How do I cite...?

[Note: In your References list, use double-spacing and a hanging indent (not shown here)]

Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.) and Author2 (First Name M.I. Last Name). Year of publication. Name of Publication. Publisher’s city and state: Publisher’s name. 

  • Jaynes, Gerald D. and Robin M. Williams, Jr. 1989. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National  Academy Press.
  • Lambert, Stephen E. 2009. Great Jobs for Sociology Majors. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Palmisano, Joseph M. 2001. World of Sociology. Detroit, MI: Gale Group. 


Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.). Year of publication. "Title of chapter." Pp. page numbers in Name of Publication, edited by, (including surname, last name not inverted). Publisher's city and state: Publisher's name. 

  • Clausen, John. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society. Vol. 3, A Sociology of Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.


Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.) and Author2 (First Name M.I. Last Name). Year of publication. “Name of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Issue Number): Page Numbers of article.

  • Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Marital Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51.


Articles and books obtained from websites follow the same pattern as those previously mentioned, with the exception that the page numbers are omitted and the URL and date of access are included.

  • Author1 (Last Name, First Name M.I.) and Author2 (First Name M.I. Last Name). Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal Volume Number (Issue Number). Retrieved Month DD, YYYY (URL).
  • Author (Last Name, First Name M.I.)  Year of publication. Name of Publication. Publisher’s city and state: Publisher’s name. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY (URL).

Williams, Brian Glyn.  2016. Counter  Jihad  :  America's Military Experience in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria, University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved Febrary 8, 2019 (

OTHER ELECTRONIC RESOURCES EXAMPLES (for more examples, see the ASA Style Guide, 5th ed.):


  • Creator (Last Name, First Name M..I). Date. "Title." Site. Retrieved MM DD, YYYY (URL).

Jack Danyells. 2007. “The YouTube Guided Tour.” You-Tube website. Retrieved July 12, 2010 (


  • Creator (Last Name, First Name M..I). Date created. "Title of Image." From Site Title. Retrieved Date (URL).

Cravens, Astrid. 2009. "Approach." From Astrid Cravens. Retrieved 17 October 2018 ( ). 


  • Author. year. "Title of work." Medium (format). Title of collection. Retrieved date (URL).

Faulkner, Rob. 2011. "A yawning alpaca." Image (JPEG). Yawn_A Yawning Alpaca. Retrieved 17 October 2018 ( ).


Note: some examples adapted from & Purdue OWL References list examples]

In-Text Citations

An in-text or parenthetical citation refers to the practice of giving credit to an author by citing their words and ideas in your paper. Citations in-text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. 

With author in sentence
Naomi Wolf (1991) argues that women's magazines have instilled a message that women have to look a certain way to experience happiness and excitement.

Without author in sentence
It has been argued that women's magazines have instilled a message that women have to look a certain way to experience happiness and excitement (Wolf 1991).

With author in sentence, using direct quote
Naomi Wolf (1991:71) argues that “a girl learns that stories happen to 'beautiful' women, whether they are interesting or not.“

REMEMBER to reference your internal citation at the end of your paper in the References section.

Bibliographic Management Tools

At Georgia Southern, you have two software programs/services available for your use: RefWorks and Endnote. These citation management tools will help you to retrieve, organize and work with sources you use in your research

You can also use Microsoft Word or Google Docs to format your citations and reference list or use services such as Zotero and Mendeley.  As of Feb 28, 2017, you can use "Cite This for Me" (formerly RefMe).  Both Zotero, Mendeley, and RefMe are free for the basic versions.