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Citing Sources

official logo of american psychological association

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. View the PowerPoint below for an introduction to APA style.

Format your APA Paper

1" Margins on all sides.

Use 12pt Font (Time New Roman or Courier), and double space

Create a title page with your title, name, and college, centered.

In your header, insert "Running Head: Title of Your Paper", and the page number on the right margin. Omit "Running head" and only use title after the title page.

Prepare your abstract on the next page.

Create the body of your paper on a new page.

Quick Links for APA Help

APA Style Guide in the Library

In-Text Citations

(From OWL Purdue)

Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. 

With author in sentence
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

Without author in sentence
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998).

Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to a specific passage. Pagination includes the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p.").

With author in sentence, using direct quote
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). 

Without author in sentence, using direct quote
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.​

Reference Lists

(From OWL Purdue)

Book 
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Edited Book, No Author
Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author 
Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book(pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Journal Article (Print)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. 

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Journal Article (Electronic)
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliographyEuropean Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Webpage
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of documentRetrieved from http://Web address

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

 

 

Citing Legal Materials in APA

For legislation, enacted and not enacted, resolutions, committee reports, etc. see APA style manual and check styles for government information.