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Academic Integrity/Citation Formats: APA Style

This LibGuide provides basic information about Academic Integrity. It includes: tips on avoiding plagiarism and guidelines for citing sources.

In-text Citations

Content adapted from LbGuide created at Loyola Marymount University/William H. Hannon Library


(see pages 174-179 in APA manual)

 In-text documentation is done through an author-date system, allowing the reader to locate your citation in your Reference list.
If the name of the author appears in the text, cite only the year of publication in parentheses (example 1).  Otherwise, place both the author's name and date of publication in parentheses, separated by a comma (example 2).  If both the author and year appear in the text, do not include a parenthetical citation.
Example 1: Jenkins (2003) described the beginning stages...
Example 2: In the beginning stages... (Jenkins, 2003)
For 2 authors: cite both names every time
For more than 2 authors: cite all authors the first time, then only the 1st author plus et. al. subsequently

APA Style Tutorials



General Format:

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Book title. Location: Publisher.


DeCarbo, M. A. (1969). Mentorship among older and younger college students. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Article or chapter in an edited book

Franciscu, J. B., & Chiarini, L. B. (1992). Clarity at last: Including personal spiritual beliefs in patient motivation evaluation. In R. M. Bright III (Ed.), Aspects of Psychology: Vol. 7. Psychology and Religion (2nd ed., pp. 24-68). Hagerstown, PA: Amicus.

Journal Articles

General Format

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue or Number), pages.

Journal article, two authors

Tenn, I. Q., & Peller, R. (1989). Violence in entertainment media [Electronic version]. Perspectives in Psychology, 23(3), 9-19.

Journal article from a database

Prdziebylo, I. L., Korzybski, C. L., & Gimpelowicz, Z. (1991). Interpersonal cognition and sibling rivalry in large families. Polish Journal of Psychology, 74, 329-348. doi: 10.1037/2078-6133.25.2.233

**For more information on doi's (Digital Object Identifiers), please consult the APA manual pp.187-192.


Web Site

*Provide as much information as possible.

General Format

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date of Publication). Web Article Title (if applicable). Title of Web Site. Retreived date, from

(If no author listed, begin the entry with the Web Page Title)

Entire Web site

Thaller, M. (2007). Cool Cosmos. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from

APA Style

More APA Style Help

APA Sample Paper (OWL)